全球視野下的漢學新藍海國際研討會

 

時間:20151119-20

地點:國家圖書館國際會議廳(臺北市中山南路20號)

主辦:國家圖書館漢學研究中心中央研究院數位文化中心

第一場 第二場 第三場 第四場 第五場 第六場

第一場 1119日(星期四)10501220

為圖書館資源設計之人文學科研究工具:研究資源連結與漢學研究之未來

魏希德∕萊頓大學中國史教授

     在本次論文發表會中,筆者將重新審視近年來運用各類文本資料庫、人物傳記資料庫、地理資訊系統,

以及連結其他產生於人文學領域內之研究工具的學術成果。筆者認為,對於今日從事漢學研究的學者及圖書館員而言,資料庫與數位資源工具──無論是公開存取或是商用存取──的連結運用是一項相當重要、卻又被忽略已久的任務。在本篇會議論文的前半部,筆者將簡要地論述幾個收錄二十世紀前文本的著名資料庫和當代漢學研究的侷限性,並將討論聚焦於其搜尋功能的實用性、資料發掘、資料輸出,以及資料取得之難易。接著,筆者將以MARKUS資料庫平台(dh.chinese-empires.eu/beta)提供的基本功能與新的運用可能為例,展示客製化的人文領域研究工具能夠如何幫助漢學研究學者克服研究時可能面臨的種種困難。最後,筆者將指出,在未來漢學研究的發展中,專為人文學科領域設計的數位研究平台與工具絕對是不可或缺,也是符膺於人文學之研究目標與前提的。筆者也將強調,與學術研究標準相符,並能夠跟上當今潮流的研究資源與工具,其實現仰賴於漢學研究社群間彼此的密切參與,更需要與圖書館員、資訊科學家、人文學科研究學者與教師之間更緊密的合作。

Humanities Tools for Library Resources: Connecting Resources and

the Future of Chinese Studies

Hilde De Weerdtprofessor of Chinese History,Leiden University

     In this presentation I will review recent efforts to connect text databases, biographical databases, geographic information systems, and tools generated from within the humanities community. I will argue that connecting databases and tools, open access as well as commercial, is an important mission for researchers and librarians in Chinese Studies and one that has been ignored for too long. In the first part of the presentation I will briefly discuss the limitations of well-known textual databases in pre-twentieth century and modern Chinese Studies with regard to search functionality, data discovery, exportability, and accessibility. Next I will demonstrate how customized humanities tools can help overcome many of these limitations, using as an example the basic and new functionality of the MARKUS platform (dh.chinese-empires.eu/beta). I will conclude that the generation of humanities-specific platforms and tools is necessary for the development of Chinese Studies and compatible with the goals and premises of philological inquiry. I will also emphasize that the realization of resources and tools that conform with academic standards and research flows requires far more engagement from within the Chinese Studies community and closer collaboration between librarians, computer scientists, and humanities researchers and teachers.

由資料庫到數位研究平台──談佛典文獻數位研究工具之發展與演變

洪振洲∕法鼓文理學院佛教學系副教授

傳統文獻研究方法中,研究者多以人工方式進行文獻內容之整理與比對,並由詞彙、語法、文體、內容意涵等各方面進行探索與討論。而傳統上,研究資料的來源也多以紙本資料為主。但因紙本資料有其不易攜帶,以及內容不易查找的缺點,因此近年來,在台灣,許多不同的「數位佛學資源」陸續被建立起來,成果不僅豐碩,也頗獲國際好評。這些數位佛學資源的目標各有不同,設計理念也各異其趣。本文依現有佛典數位資源的發展脈絡,將這些工具資源的研發理念,依發展之先後順序,分為五大主題來介紹,分別是:「數位文獻資料庫」、「數位參考工具」、「主題式文獻資料庫」、「文獻內容視覺化」與「佛典文獻之數位分析」。文中除逐一介紹各主題類型之佛典數位資源的發展特性之外,也以相關專案為實例,說明其資料模型之設計理念與界面技術架構。除了讓讀者明瞭佛典數位資源的整體發展現況,同時可提供系統開發時的參考模板。

本文係介紹現有佛典文獻數位研究工具之發展與演變,並詳述本團隊現正著手進行的新一代佛學數位資源之整合研究平台之建置計畫。計畫的動機來自於觀察到現有的各數位佛學資源雖然都具有豐富的內容,但惜因各資料庫間並無良好之整合,實難以發揮相輔相成之效。且今日進入了數位時代,將數位量化分析方法與現有數位資料相結合,來輔助研究者更加快速的探索佛教經典的內涵,也是亟待發展的領域。總合以上諸多原因,催生了本團隊著手進行此整合研究平台之開發計畫。此平台的主要設計理念就是以輔助人文學者應用數位方法進行漢籍佛典文獻研究為主旨。除將現有相關數位資源於平台上進行良好的整合,提供更全面的數位資料內容之外,也嘗試將數位研究所需之工具,建置於此平台之上,以引導研究者使用數位研究方法於研究問題之中。

From Database to Digital Research Platform: Development and Evolution of

Buddhism Literary Digital Research Tool

Jen-jou Hungassociate professor in Department of Buddhist Studies at Dharma Drum Institute of Liberal Arts

   Over the years scholars have leveraged traditional text-critical methods to study and compare literary texts so as to explore and discuss various aspects of important research questions on literatures. Researchers in the field of Buddhist philology tend to invest a considerable amount of time in their preliminary processing of the texts in order to be able to then analyze their observations and produce scientifically qualified research. One of the main reasons that lies behind this rather enormous time-investment required to deal with even comparatively minor textual issues is  the fact that the traditional philological research method relies heavily on ‘human power’ to collate information, analyze results and explain the inferences derived from the analysis. As a result of this burdensome procedure, large scale research projects carried out by individual scholars are rarely seen.

      In recent years, a large number of Buddhist digital resources have been made available in Taiwan. The development of Buddhist digital resources in Taiwan has won international fame. The existing digital resources mostly have great search functions which provide a very efficient way for looking up a required part in a given text within a moment. However, the lack of integration of the existing databases makes the scholars need to spend much time in bringing the materials from different systems together. Furthermore, digital philology, as a branch of digital humanities, with its application to Buddhist materials, is now opening new research horizons in Buddhist studies. With the help of computer information technology, we are now able to apply statistical methods or artificial intelligence algorithms to the analysis of the existing corpora of digitized texts. However, the potential of information technology applied to this field of research has yet to be recognized, let alone fully developed and introduced as common practice. The performance of quantitative analysis on digital texts still requires high-level skills in computer programming and advanced statistical knowledge, which creates a high barrier for scholars in the humanities who are now attempting to navigate these tools.

     Therefore, in order to effectively assist humanities scholars in overcoming the major hindrances to progress in their active use of computational linguistic resources and information technology in general, we propose to create an integrated research platform for Chinese Buddhist Literature. The main features of this platform are: (1) a variety of digital resources is well integrated in the platform to provide more comprehensive research materials for scholars; (2) all high-quality source data are available for download for users to use in advanced digital analysis; (3) the platform also integrates the tools that are used by the digital researches to guide textual scholars who are using digital tools and method in forming, re-framing and pursuing their own research questions.  

     This paper firstly presents a history of the field account, to discuss the development and evolution of digital research tools for Buddhist literature studies, and it then gives a detailed introduction and description of the ongoing project for building the integrated digital research platform for Chinese Buddhist literature. We believe that this paper can help readers mastering the overall situation and development of digital resources for the study of Chinese Buddhist literature, and that it may provide important reference information for developing similar systems in other areas.

第二場 1119日(星期四)13401510

海外中文教學中的閩南話課程

傅熊∕倫敦大學亞非學院中國及內亞語言文化系教授

當今提供閩南話語言課程的歐美大學極少。此報告的主旨在於介紹亞非學院漢學教授傅熊和臺大臺文所暨中文系楊秀芳教授所連手合著Southern Hokkien. An Introduction 閩南話課本的課程安排及教學方法,並且討論海外中文系裡方言教學對於較全面性漢語教學的牽動貢獻。此外,本文涉獵此閩南話課本如何處理漢語方言教學的若干問題。

Teaching Southern Hokkien as Part of the Curriculum in a Chinese Department

Bernhard Fuehrer/professor of School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

  Southern Hokkien (Minnanhua, Taiwanese), one of the southern Chinese regional languages, is rarely taught in Chinese programmes at European or American universities. This paper sheds light on the design and pedagogical aims of a new comprehensive introduction to Southern Hokkien, and  discusses some of the potential benefits of teaching languages such as Southern Hokkien and      Cantonese in addition to Mandarin. It also deals with aspects of Southern Hokkien that are found beneficial for efficient acquisition of this language outside its natural linguistic environment.

回顧德國漢學家賈柏蓮孜漢語語法等的論述

徐約和 / 萊比錫大學東亞研究所漢學系助理教授

     近年來,許多社會科學的理論逐漸被德國漢學界引用,同時傳統的語文學卻逐漸沒落。儘管社會科學的理論看起來很入時,這些研究往往缺乏適當的依據,因為沒有大量的一手資料。然而,存在於新穎與傳統研究風格之間的衝突,不僅僅是一個當代的現象。早在1920世紀,正當漢學研究處於初期發展的階段,當時的學者們已經在辯論關於哪些方法適合研究中國的歷史、文化、社會等議題。在本文中,我將為大家介紹萊比錫大學最著名的語言學家與漢學家之一,賈柏蓮孜(1840-1893)以及他的事蹟。賈柏蓮孜最被後人稱道的貢獻莫過於他在漢語語法的造詣,此次的討論我也將論及他對於中國哲學家與文化等鮮為人知的研究。以賈柏蓮孜為例,本文將試圖回應一個問題,就是我們是否必須不斷的尋找新的研究領域與研究途徑作為研究的素材。或者有時候回顧過去的研究成果會激盪出更有價值的收穫。

Thorough Dilettantism

Rethinking the Works of Georg von der Gabelentz

JoergHusemannassistant professorin East Asian Institute, Leipzig University

 

   In recent times, the theories of the social sciences have found their way into German sinology, while traditional philology has often been neglected. Although appearing up-to-date, these studies often lack a proper foundation, which entails working with primary source material. However, conflicts between new and old styles of research are not only a contemporary phenomenon. Already in the 19th and 20th century researchers fought about the proper approach to the then      relatively new field of Sinology. In this article I will introduce the work of one of the         University of Leipzig’s most famous linguists and Sinologists, Georg von der Gabelentz (1840-    1893). Best known for his contributions to our understanding of Chinese grammar, the discussion   here will also include his lesser known studies about Chinese philosophers and culture.           

     Taking Gabelentz as an example, this article tries to answer the question of whether we always have to search for new fields of study and new approaches to our material or if it is      sometimes more fruitful to recollect and reflect the contributions of the old matters.            

第三場 1119日(星期四)15:301710

沈船講述:美船羅妹與晚清臺灣

葉文心∕加州大學歷史系講座教授

同治六年春,美船羅妹號在臺灣南部水域觸礁沈沒。此後數月閩臺地區中外官員互動,致力於遭難者的搜尋與可能救援。雙方不甚愉快的合作最終分別促成了漢、英語境中有關統治與文明的新話語建構。現代沈船在漢學中不是常見選題,羅妹號也不是大事件。然而近年跟台灣相關的史料整理,內容十分豐富,羅妹號也不例外。本文嘗試透過史料閱讀開發新視角。

Shipwrecked: the American Rover and late Qing Taiwan

Wen-hsinYehRichard H. & Laurie C. Morrison Chair Professor in History,

University of California, Berkeley

     In March 1867 the American Rover wrecked off the coast of southern Taiwan. In its aftermath Chinese and American officials interacted for the search and possible rescue of its victims.      Their unhappy collaboration contributed in the end to the respective framing of new discourses    about governance and civilization. Modern wrecks generally do not feature very largely in         Sinology. Nor does the Rover constitute a major historical episode. Meanwhile much has been done  in recent years concerning historical sources about Taiwan, including aspects of the Rover. This  paper is an attempt to gain new perspectives by drawing upon these materials.                     

 

北宋晚期金石收藏的網絡與脈絡

許雅惠∕臺灣大學歷史學系副教授

     金石研究自北宋中期出現之後,不僅成為傳統中國學術的重要範疇,扮演著補經證史的功能,也是士人階層文化涵養的一部分。在二十世紀早期的現代轉化中,金石學進入古文字學、歷史學、考古學、藝術史學等學科當中。近幾年,由於網路科技的發展、巨量資料的累積,各種數位分析工具出現,吸引不少學者探索數位工具應用於人文學科的可能性與有效性。本研究便是這樣的實驗,將以數位網絡分析來處理金石圖錄,整理北宋晚期各收藏家與他們的社會網絡,分析各收藏圈之間的關聯,進而探討相關的政治、文化脈絡。嘗試為傳統材料尋找一個方法上的新突破。分析材料為呂大臨《考古圖》、趙九成《續考古圖》、趙明誠《金石錄》等三部著錄私家收藏的金石書籍,它們於1092-1125年間相繼成書,是探討北宋晚期金石收藏圈的最佳材料。        

 

Collecting Antiquities in the Late Northern Song: A Network Analysis Approach

Ya-hwei Hsuassociate professor in Department of History, National Taiwan University

     The Chinese antiquarian tradition of studying words on metal and stone antiquities,         jinshixue, had occupied a prominent place in traditional scholarship since its genesis in the     eleventh century. During the early half of the twentieth century, this traditional scholarship    found its way into the modern discipline of paleography, history, archaeology, and art history.   Recently, as “digital humanities” are emerging as a result of internet technologies, humanities scholars are exploring the potentials of new digital analytic tools and the insights they promise to bring. This paper will be an experiment of this kind. It applies network analysis to the study of Song antiquarian catalogues to map out different antiquarian circles and to trace their        evolvement through time. Finally, it will examine related political and cultural context that     helped shaping the development. With the new research tool, this research will raise different    kinds of questions to the centuries-old scholarship ofjinshixue.                                  

第四場 1120日(星期五)09:001030

誰會讀到你的文章?數位時代學術社群的創建與維持──以宋代疆域研究為例

伊沛霞∕西雅圖華盛頓大學歷史系教授

     這個演講主要討論了兩個議題。第一個是關於新的研究技術如何與社會文化環境相互作用,從而塑造了在美中國史學者的學術工作。這個議題的關鍵在於強大的新興研究工具的發展改變了我們的研究方式;而同時伴隨著的,是不斷擴大的攻讀中國史的博士生群體,以及他們日益加深的專業化和地理上的散佈。那些不在研究型大學的學者們常常沒有權限使用一些最為寶貴的數據庫,比如中研院的漢籍電子文獻和中國知網。這就造成了研究工具上的進一步不平等。演講的第二個部份是一個個案分析,主要關注一個新的研究趨勢:國家和疆域之間的關係。關於這個課題的最新研究包括馬瑞詩(Ruth Mostern)對於中央政府和郡縣之間財政關繫的研究和李錫熙(Sukhee Lee)關於中央政府對明州地方社會的個案分析。在2014年的“九至十五世紀中國史會議”(Conference on Middle Period China, 800-1400)上,學者們帶來了很多有關北方地區的有趣研究,而南方地區直到目前依舊少人研究。對於北方區域進行細緻研究需要學者大量使用考古或者碑文資料,因為在北宋之後較少有文集是由北方的文人留下的。但是,從事這些前沿課題研究的學者們正是那些無法使用類似漢籍文獻和中國知網這些數據庫的群體。我認為,幫助這些學者使他們保持活躍和積極的參與對我們而言是有益的,因為越多的博士生保持活躍的研究,就意味著更多的讀者:而我們每個人的學術研究都需要讀者。

Who Will Read What You Write? Creating and Sustaining Scholarly Networks and Communitiesin the Digital Age, with Special Attention to the Issue of Place in Song History

 

Patricia Buckley Ebreyprofessor in Department of History, University of Washington

    This talk addresses two issues. The first is how new technologies of research interact with other social and economic conditions to shape the work done by scholars in Chinese history in the U.S.Central here is the development of powerful new research tools that have changed the way we do research, coupled with growth in numbers of Chinese history PhDs, their increasing specialization, and their geographical scattering. The most valuable tools, such as ScriptaSinica and CNKI, are often unavailable to scholars not at research universities, leading to a growing inequality in access to research tools. The second half of this talk focuses on an example of a research trend --new interest in the state’s relation to its territories. Important recent books that bear on this include Ruth Mostern’s analysis of the fiscal relationships between the central government and its prefectures, and Sukhee Lee’s study of the ways the central government mattered in local society, based on a case study of Mingzhou. At the 2014 Middle Period conference, there were many interesting papers on places in the north, up to now much less studied that places in the south. Close study of places in the north often requires use of archaeological or epigraphical evidence as there are many fewer collected works by authors from the north after the Northern Song. Scholars who are doing cutting edge research on these topics are among those without access to key sources such as CNKI and ScriptaSinica. Helping such scholars stay active and engaged is in our self-interest, I argue, since the more PhDs who stay active in research, the more readers we will have—and all of us need readers for our work.  

韓國數位人文教育現狀與課題

金把路∕韓國學中央研究院博士生

     世界各國人文學界已關心數位人文。可是在研究層面,數位人文還是經常誤導為數位化。大部分的人文學者還僅提供原始人文資料,而僱傭情報專家來進行數位化。因此人文學者很難預測其結果,情報專家對原始人文資料的了解不深,導致建構不完全的人文數據。不完全的人文數據的基礎上,很難產生出有意義的數位人文研究成果。在教育層面,雖然世界各國在初中教育課程上已實行或即將實行程式設計教育(Code教育),但在  高等人文教育上,還沒關心如何應對初中程式設計教育培養出來的人文學徒。不管是研究層面的問題還是教育層面的問題,我們只能依靠數位人文教育。但數位人文教育方法還在初級研究階段。雖然已有著數位技術課程,不過還是很難發現為人文學者或者人文學徒的數位技術課程。在高等教育上,大部分現任人文學教授對數位技術的理解不深,所以教授們找不到應對“數位原生代學生(Born-Digital Student)”的教育方法,導致無法培養以數位技術為寶劍的新時代數位人文學家。因此數位人文只能在“人文學者直接運用數位技術而生產和分析數位人文知識數據”的環境下,才能得到發展的意識下,探討到高等人文教育上的數位人文教育課程,並提出為人文學者或人文學徒的數位人文教育課程設計。

     其課程的核心為如下。第一,為了人文學者與情報專家的溝通,課程要培養基礎數位文解(digital literacy)能力。第二,為了數位人文的擴散,課程的主要教育對象為現任大學教授與研究生。第三,為了提高數位人文的實際應用能力,課程要供通過數位技術生產和分析人文數據的實習機會。

 

Digital Humanities Pedagogy in Korea

Baro KimPh.D. student at Academy of Korean Studies

     In recent years, digital humanities has been receiving increased attention in the global academic circles. However, In the research area, digital humanities is often misleading to digitalization. Many of the digital humanities researches are still conducted by traditional humanities scholars, who hire information technology (IT) experts only to digitize their raw research materials. Under this circumstance, the humanities scholars have difficulties in anticipating the research results, while the IT experts, who do not have profound understanding about the humanities studies, merely succeed in the development of incomplete humanities data. In the Education area, Coding education has been introduced to the secondary schools in many countries. However, humanities studies in higher education were not concerned about how to deal with the "born-digital" students from secondary education.

     Although education is the only solution that we can rely on to overcome this situation, the educational methodologies for digital humanities are still in its early stage. If there is a certain curriculum for whom want to learn diverse digital technologies, it is still hard to find any educational course specifically designed for humanities scholars. Moreover, it can be said that developing educational methods for “born-digital students” is at a standstill, as most professors in universities are not familiar with these digital technologies.

     Digital humanities can be successful, only when humanities scholars are able to produce digital data of humanities knowledge, and the knowledge data can be broadly used in the common society. Also, the humanities scholars should be able to operate various digital technologies to improve their work. In this sense, this paper aims to design a humanities research and education curriculum for humanities scholars, in order to help them perform their research in digital environment.

     The core characteristics of this course are as follows. First, the purpose of this course is to develop the digital literacy of humanities scholars, to enhance the communication between humanities scholars and IT experts. Second, this course is strongly recommended to university professors and PhD students, in order to promote the proliferation of digital humanities. Third, this course provides the participants with the opportunities for building and analyzing humanities data, using digital technologies, in an attempt to upgrade their practical ability to adapt digital humanities.

 

第五場 1120日(星期五)10:501220

近代漢語中「環境(environment)」與「自然(nature)」名詞的誕生:

一個數位人文學的觀察

劉士永∕中央研究院臺灣史研究所研究員

杜克∕海德堡大學博士生

     隨著近年來環境史研究之興起,環境與自然二詞不僅被學者頻繁引用,尤有甚者更據之描繪傳統中國社會的類似想像與概念。然而,當前漢語中的環境與自然二詞是否自古已然,其隱含之概念是否即得以對譯西文之environmentnature,則罕有學者從歷史的角度予以分殊及溯源。本論文將就這兩個詞彙形成的源始與背景先進行歷史背景的爬梳,再藉由現有數位人文研究之工具,探究其與同時代類似詞彙的語意關聯性,希望藉由交錯使用傳統史學與現代先進數位人文學的研究方法,探析環境與自然二詞生成之緣由以及其間現代environmentnature概念轉化、滲透之可能過程。  本文作者亦希望透過這個研究主題,略探數位人文學之研究方法與工具,能如何的影響既有的歷史研究方法乃至       於觀點,希冀為爾後的數位人文學歷史研究做一嘗試。                                                         

The Birth of “Huanjing (environment)” and “Ziran (nature)” in modern Chinese: a case study of digital humanity
 

Michael Shi-yung Liuresearch fellow of Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica

      Duncan PatersonPh. D. student at Heidelberg University

     On recent tide of studies of environmental history, terms of“huanjing” and “ziran” are frequently applied by scholars to portray similar imagination or concept in Chinese society.      However, the wonder to identify Chinese “huanjing” and “ziran” in traditional Chinese         linguistics, or further to the accuracy of translating English “environment” and “nature” are rarely questioned. This study aims to trace the history of creating “huanjing” and “ziran” in modern Chinese following by cross-examining similar terms in contemporary period on linguistic    terminology. The authors hope to study these questions both by conventional historical methods    and advanced approach of digital humanity. By doing so, the study is also an attempt to probe the possibility of using digital humanity on historical researches.                                   

疾病感覺地圖:地理資訊系統(GIS)視野下的文本世界

劉苑如∕中央研究院中國文哲研究所研究員

 羅珮瑄∕中央研究院中國文哲研究所研究助理

     本文以魏晉南北朝筆記為材料,從時空關係、歷史事件、社會行動、知覺型態、感覺結構等觀點,分析中國中古時期疾病與各種知識和話語之間的互動關係,從而探索筆記文本生產的書寫環境,以及其所涵攝的種種社會文化隱喻。在《世說新語》一類的志人小說中,疾病作為人物品鑑、語言機鋒的語境,往往缺乏病因、病況、醫療等細節,有時託病以提出個人主張或政治訴求,甚至透過人物的言行翻轉疾病的污名,形成獨特的疾病敘述,在個體意志與集體品味之間,體現出志人小說的文類特色。而在《冥祥記》等志怪小說中,疾病往往是異常形態與非常事件發生的契機、變因或結果,每將疾病形象化,視為一種生命困境的隱喻,隨著志怪編輯者之立場與信仰的不同,病者、施者與協調者對疾病的感覺、敘述、想像與互動亦有所差異。               

     在研究取徑上,本文嘗試結合當代科學技藝,一方面借用GIS技術以建立專題資料庫,提供文獻檢索與視覺化的地圖繪製的平台;另一方面則進一步探索數位科技與人文研究在跨領域合作之際,彼此之間的問        題意識、知識體系與思維方法上的異同。在當代漢學研究正在思考如何突破時空限制、文化差異、知識範疇等挑戰的當下,本文作為一個案式的專題研究,試圖為傳統的文本世界增添新的想像與可能性。               

Mapping Disease: Textual Worlds and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Yuan-Ju Liuresearch fellow of Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy,

Academia Sinica

      Pei-hsuan Loresearch assistant of Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy, Academia Sinica

    Based on material coming from the biji genre (scattered writings) during the Wei-Jin Southern and Northern dynasties, this article analyses the interactive relations between disease in medieval China    and different modalities of knowledge and discourse done from the point of view of spatial relations,    historical event, social mobility, perception patterns and the structure of feeling, and explores the    atmosphere of writing created by the texts of the biji as well as the numerous metaphors concerning      social culture subsumed in them.                                                                         

In ShishuoXinyu, A new Account of the Tales of the World, disease is situated in the context of personnel evaluation and linguistic eloquence, and often lacks details about its cause, condition or treatment, sometimes it is used allegorically to make personal claims or for political demands. Occasionally, a specific disease narrative is constituted even through a person’s words and behavior    being transformed into a disease, which reveals the generic uniqueness of the historical anecdotes genre, zhirenxiaoshuo, coming from the individual will and collective taste. In the stories about the    strange, zhiguaixiaoshuo, such as Mingxiangji, disease is the juncture, variable or result happening     between something abnormal and an extraordinary     event, each of which makes evident the disease, an   allegory for the predicaments of life. The diversity in the standpoints and beliefs of the compilers of  such stories influences the differences in the emotions, narration, imagination and interaction between  the sick person, the one who causes the disease and who relieves it.                                     

In terms of research methods, the article applies modern technology while on the one hand building thematic database by means of GIS, and provides a platform drawn by maps for the retrieval and           visualization of texts, and on the other, pushes further the possibilities of a multidisciplinary        collaboration between digital technologies and humanities research, and probes into the differences      about how they both ask questions, their epistemological systems and way of thinking. The article is a   case study, which adds a new perspective and possibility to the traditional study of textual worlds in a time when modern sinology faces challenges to break through the constraints of time-space, cultural      diversity and categories of knowledge.                                                                  

第六場 1120日(星期五)13:4015:40

中國傳統詩歌在西方漢學的地位──歷史研究方法以及教學實務

羅然∕布拉格查理士大學東亞研究所教授

詩歌可說是中國現代化之前重要的文化藝術之一,它從來不曾消失於中國文化中,只是中國文化與西方接觸時產生的質變,不免讓中國傳統的古典詩歌藝術遭到邊緣化。在這個層面上,古典詩歌確實最能夠代表中國在近現代之前,獨立發展出的精緻文化傳統。在西方漢學的研究發展中,中國古典詩歌對學者的吸引力晚於孔子思想、易經、或明清小說和戲曲,然而歐美學界對中國詩歌的研究早萌芽於漢學研究的發展初期,有著還算豐富的學術傳統。在學術界之外,中國古典詩也曾在不同時代成為歐美文人欣賞謳歌的對象,更多次啟發西方的詩學實驗與美學突破(在此我們暫且不論歐美詩人對中國傳統詩歌的熱愛是否源自於當時翻譯導致的極大誤解與「誤讀」).                                       

     雖然中國傳統詩歌從來不曾是西方漢學的核心研究主題,但眾多專門討論此文學作品類型的專書與論文業已出版,其中包括來自於專家學者與業餘愛好者的詩歌翻譯。而綜觀西方近兩百年來的中國詩歌研究,我們可以看到研究主題、研究方式、以及研究方法論的延續性,同時卻也觀察到這些領域的轉變或斷裂。西方漢學研究的成果不但持續地擴展了我們理解中國詩歌傳統的視野,也增強了我們對其獨特文化面向的感受能力。在此同時,我們卻不得不承認這些研究成果仍然有所侷限,中國的詩歌傳統仍然有廣闊的未知面向等待漢學家持續研究探索。另一方面,對於中國古代詩歌(無論我們定義為何)中經典作品的熟習與知識──包括欣賞中國傳統詩歌美學的先備認識──也尚未成為歐美大學中文語言或相關文化學系所的必修課程內容。                                                                   

     在這次發表中,我將爬梳歷年來西方研究中國古典詩歌的重點所在,並且特別聚焦於導致中國古典詩沒有能夠更廣泛地被納入西方漢學教育的幾個重要原因,包括了中文詩歌特殊語言本身的困難程度,以及相關辭典與研究工具的缺乏,也是缺少中國古典詩的專家學者註解的外文翻譯──這些工具書都是學生在學習中國古典詩時不可或缺的。這次發表也將討論數位資源能夠提供的新學習方向與發展研究的可能性。                                               

Traditional Poetry in Western Sinology – History Methodologies and

Teaching Practice

Olga Lomováprofessor in Institute of East Asian Studies atCharles University, Prague

    It is generally agreed that poetry is an important part of the pre-modern Chinese culture; it best represents the sophistication of this culture prior to its encounter with the West and subsequent        transformations in the modern era when poetry in classical forms was marginalized,though it never really ceased existing. Poetry attracted the interest of Western scholars later than Confucius, the Yijing,   or the Ming and Qing fiction and drama, but poetry studies still have a respectable history nearly as    long as the academic Sinology itself. At certain periods of time traditional Chinese poetry also has the privilege of becoming an object of admiration outside of the academic circles and inspiring new trends  in western poetry (the fact that the enthusiasm for Chinese poetry among western poets was often         conditioned by gross misunderstandings is not important here).                                           

Though it has never been at the center of the interest of Sinology, numerous books and articles dedicated to Chinese poetry have been published so far, including translations done by specialists and   amateurs alike. Following the research in this area of Sinology during the last nearly two hundred       years, we can see continuity as well as discontinuity and changes in interests, approaches and           methodologies. The scope of understanding of the tradition of poetry writing in China has certainly been steadily broadening, as did the sensitivity to its culturally specific dimensions. At the same time it   has to be admitted that only a very small part of the heritage of Chinese poetry has been explored by    Western Sinologists, and that the knowledge of the canon of pre-modern Chinese poetry (however we define it), including cultivation of the basic prerequisites for aesthetic appreciation of the poetic heritage  of China, have not become yet an indispensable part of the Chinese language and culture education in     Western universities.                                                                                    

     This presentation will elucidatespan lang="zh-tw"> Western interest in classical poetry past and present, with special focus on the basic issues hindering more widespread presence of poetry in the       Sinological education, including the difficulty of the language and lack of relevant                     dictionaries and other tools, as well as translations with good scholarly annotations indispensable for  a student. New possibilities offered by digital resources will be touched upon as well.                  

《全唐詩》的分析, 探勘與應用:一個計算語言學的觀點

劉昭麟、張淳甯、許筑婷、鄭文惠、王宏甦、邱偉雲

唐詩是中國文學極重要的一部分,《全唐詩》於清康熙年間由官方力量所編纂、收錄兩千餘位詩人所著,內容四萬多首詩歌、包含超過三百萬字,無疑是研究唐詩最重要的資源之一。本文作者利用計算語言學領域所發展的學術理論和軟體工具,透過分析《全唐詩》的內容,作多方面的探索。                                                                                                                 

《全唐詩》之中,白居易的作品數量最多,有兩千五百餘首,其次杜甫有一千餘首,李白接近九百首,其他依序齊己、劉禹錫、元稹、李商隱、貫休、韋應物、陸龜蒙、劉長卿、許渾和皎然有超過五百首作品。這一些作品有一些並不是完整的詩歌,而只是短句或者聯句。作品之中,最常見的二字詞依序有何處不知萬里千里今日不見不可春風白雲不得明月和和人間”/span>。。                                                                                                                                                                                      

我們以李白和杜甫做為比較個別詩人風格的例子,觀察李、杜詩歌之中的/span>。兩人的都有多種的變化,李白最常提到的是春風清風秋風東風長風;而杜甫則是秋風春風北風悲風朔風。就表面的詞頻來說,李白常用的月有多樣化的變化,如明月秋月日月海月山月;而杜甫則較常提到歲月和時間的月份,例如十月三月八月。。                                                                                                                                                       

詩歌中的顏色詞彙就如電影中的聲光效果,是詩歌意象的重要成分。我們可以分析詩歌中出現的/span>白髮、、“/span>白頭白首白鬚白骨白髭的比率,可以看到孟浩然、李商隱和溫庭筠三人很少用到這一些詞彙(少於2%),而常被歸類為社會詩人的杜甫和白居易則有超過7%的的作品用到這一些詞彙。         

進一步利用一些詩歌的對仗限制,我們可以發現顏色詞彙的運用。例如,/span>白雲經常和明月流水一起出現,白日經常和青春青山一起出現,白髮則常常和青山青雲一起出現。白髮青雲的對仗至少出現過26次。如果只看單一漢字的顏色,透過分析工具的協助,可以觀察到是唐詩之中最常見的顏色,最常對最常對等等有趣的相關資訊。                                                                                                                                                                                      

《全唐詩》也同時揭露了詩人的社會網路,詩歌的標題和內容記錄了一些詩人之間的贈詩、互訪、想念的關係,可以做為詩人社會網路分析的部分依據。《全唐詩》因此也對於史學資料庫,如哈佛大學的「中國歷代人物傳記資料庫」的擴充有極高的價值。在《全唐詩》中至少有八位詩人的/span>15首詩歌提到李白。《全唐詩》也可以用來當作一些文藝活動的典範語料,以全唐詩中詞彙對仗的狀況,我們可以建構簡單的對對聯的程式,以常見的對仗詞對來回答現代的對聯;只是偶然會用到一些非現代常用的詞彙,例如長安。。                                 

透過這一系列的工作,我們實踐了數位人文領域的初步理想,數位技術雖然尚且不足以直接被用來建立深度的人文論述,但是透過相關的資訊檢索、文本分析和資料探勘的服務,數位技術讓專家可以比過去更加專注於深度議題的研究,而不需要花很多時間來蒐集基礎的研究資料。                                                                                     

 

關鍵詞:數位人文、中國文學、全唐詩、詞彙語意、共現分析、文本分析、語料庫分析、中國歷代人物傳記資料庫    

Textual Analysis of Complete Tang Poems for Discoveries and Applications: A Computational Perspective

Chao-Lin Liu,CChun-Ning Chang,Chu-Ting Hsu

Wen-Huei Cheng,Hongsu Wang, Wei-Yun Chiu

     Complete Tang Poems (CTP) is the single most important collection for studying Tang poems, which qualified as a very important part of Chinese literature. CTP was officially compiled during the Kangxi years of the Qing dynasty, and includes more than 40,000 poems, totaling more than 3 million characters, that were authored by more than 2000 poets. Employing linguistic theories and computational tools, we analyze the contents of CTP for a wide variety of explorations.

    Juyi Bai, the most popular poet in CTP, has more than 2500 works in CTP, followed by Fu Du’s more than 1000 works and Bai Li’s nearly 900 works. Other poets who had more than 500 works in   CTP are Qi Ji, Yu-Xi Liu, Zhen Yuan, Shang-Yin Li, Xiu Guan, Ying-Wu Wei, Gui-Meng Lu, Zhang-Qing Liu, Hun Xu, and Ran Jiao. Some of the works collected in CTP were not complete but just pairs of statements.

     In the order of higher frequencies, the most common two-character words in CTP are “何處” (he1 chu4, where), “不知” (bu4 zhi1, unknown), “萬里” (wan4 li3, tens of thousands of miles), “千里” (qian1 li3, thousands of miles), “今日” (jin1 ri4, today), “不見” (bu2 jian4, cannot be seen), “不可” (bu4 ke3, cannot), “春風” (chun1 feng1, spring wind), “白雲” (bai2 yun2,  white cloud), “不得”(bu4 de2, cannot), “明月” (ming2 yue4, bright moon) 人間” (ren2     jian1, human world).

    We compared the styles of Bai Li and Fu Du by looking into how they used “” (feng1, wind) and “” (yue4, moon) in their works. Both Li and Du were very creative in inventing terms for “”. The most common terms of “” in Bai Li’s works were “春風”(chun1 feng1, spring wind), “清風”(qing1 feng1, clear wind), “秋風”(qiu1 feng1, autumn wind), “東風”(dong1       feng1, eastern wind), and “長風” (zhang2 feng1, long wind). Fu Du had “秋風”, “春風”, “北風” (bei3 feng1, northern wind), “悲風” (bei1 feng1, sad wind), and “朔風” (shuo4 feng1,    northern wind). Li and Du showed quite diverging styles in using “”. For frequent terms of   “”, Li had “明月” (ming2 yue4, bright moon), “秋月” (qiu1 yue4, autumn moon), “日月” (ri4 yue4, sun and moon) , “海月” (hai3 yue4, sea and moon), and “山月”(shan1 yue4, mountain moon); in contrast, Du used more “歲月” (sui4 yue4, ages) and monthly names, e.g., “十月”    (shi2 yue4, October), “三月” (san1 yue4, March), and “八月” (ba1 yue4, August).               

  Colors for poems are like sounds for movies. They nurture feelings and imageries of the artistic works. By analyzing the total percentage of using “白髮” (bai2 fa3, gray hair),"白頭”(bai2 tao2, white head), “白首” (bai2 shou3, white head), “白鬚”(bai2 syu1, white beard),     “白骨”(bai2 gu3, white bone), and “白髭”(bai2 zi1, white mustache) in poems, it is possible   to peek into the differences of the main themes of poets’ works. Hao-Ran Meng, Shang-Yin Li, and Ting-Yun Wen rarely used these terms in their works (less than 2%). In contrast, we could encounter these terms in Fu Du’s and Juyi Bai’s works more than 7% of the time. Both Du and Bai were considered as poets who cared very much about the societies for people.                      

     Antithesis[1] is a constrained form of collocation in Tang poems, and they are instrumental for mining relationships of corresponding words. It is very interesting to find out that “白雲” (bai2 yun2, white cloud) collocated with “明月” (ming2 yue4, bright moon) and “流水” (liu2    shui3, running water), that “白日” (bai2 ri4, bright sun) collocated with “青春” (qing1       chun1, young age) and “青山” (qing1 shan1, mountains), that “白髮” (bai2 fa3, gray hair)      collocated with “青山” and “青雲” (qing1 yun2, blueish clouds), and that “白髮” and “青    雲” were used a pair of antithesis at least 26 times in CTP.                                     

     It is possible to focus on one-character color words as well. We can see that “” (bai2, white) is the most popular color in Tang poems. That “” corresponds to “” (qing1, blue)   and “” (huang2, yellow) and that “” (bi4, green) corresponds to “” (hong2, red) and   “” are among the interesting findings.                                                        

    We can also investigate social networks among poets by searching some keywords in CTP. Poet’s social networks are useful for literary and historical studies, e.g., the China           Biographical Database Project at Harvard University. Poets may give their poems to friends, they  may write a poem after visiting their friends, and they may just miss their friends by producing  a poem. Poets’ poems may record these events. In CTP, at least eight poets mentioned Bai Li in   15 of their works.                                                                                

     The elite status of CTP in Chinese literature qualifies her contents to be used as the basis for some literary applications, such as couplet suggestions. We can use the corresponding words   in CTP for making couplets, although some of the terms, e.g., “長安” (zhang2 an1, Xian City     nowadays) will be an out-of-dated surprising term for modern youngsters.                          

     With the aforementioned applications, we demonstrated the potentials of computational tools of natural language processing, which is a key ingredient of a fast-growing research field –     Digital Humanities. Computational tools, such as information retrieval, textual analysis, and     text mining, cannot accomplish deep research yet, but they can help researchers find and collect  much more relevant research material with astonishing efficiency. We hope that the CTP examples   we will report in the conference will serve as convincing illustrations.                          

Keywords: Digital humanities, Chinese literature, Quan-Tang-Shi, Distributional semantics,         Collocation, Textual Analysis, Corpus Analysis, China Biographic                       


[1]“Antithesis” is not a perfect translation of “對仗”. “對仗” requires two terms to have opposite relationships in pronunciations, but does not demand the terms to be opposite in    meanings. In English, “antithesis” carries a rather obvious demand for two referred terms to be opposite in meanings.                                                                             

探討文學主題/a>和主題模型

陳威∕洛杉磯加州大學亞洲語言與文化學系副教授

     談到文學主題,我想問:「主題」(topic)的基本意義是什麼?跟隨西方古典文學批評(亞里斯多德(Aristotle)、西塞羅(Cicero)),主題的概念表示辯論的起源,一種有能構成辯論的型板。對於羅伯特恩斯特庫庫爾裘斯(Robert Ernst Curtius)來說,主題就是文學書寫的基本因素。換一句說,庫爾裘斯認為主題是文本之中組織辯論發展的反覆出現句子。轉到中國文學研究,西方漢學家通常在某一種文體的範圍運用「主題」與「副主題」(subtopic/span>)這兩個辭(根據宇文所安《中國傳統詩歌與詩學:世界的徵象》的說法)來治理文本的多樣性而把文本置於相似主題的類型。這種實踐不但反映傳統類書的組織方法而且也跟一般當代選集有相關關係。本文由文學資料管理的角度來探討這些組織實踐的起源而考察文學史運用主題類型的理由。

從此我想轉向主題模型(topic modeling))之中的主題概念。主題模型的主題當然跟文學實踐的主題有一些差異。簡單地說,主題模型的目的是以統計模型在一套語料庫發現文本之中的抽象主題。可是,一個主題不是一個標籤或者一個名稱,而是一個以或然率排列的辭單。在這種計算方法之下,主題模型的主題就是產生起初文本的假設因素,也可以說是一種有分析力的虛構。雖然如此,從主題模型的分析,我們可以發現文本中的潛在結構,與亞里斯多德主題的顯示結構有相似關係。問題是,以計算程式而閱讀文學,我們也得改變閱讀的     概念;主題模型的結果不能當做文本詮釋。因此,本文會探討以主題為主要部分分析的能力和局限。         

On Literary Topics and Topic Modelingo:p>

Jack W. Chenaassociate professor in Department of Asian Languages & Cultures, UCLA

         What do we mean when we speak about "literary topics”? In Western critical discourse, the notion of the topic was used by Aristotle (Rhetoric) and Cicero (Topica) to refer to sources of argumentation, a   template by which an argument might be constructed. For Curtius                                          

(European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages), the topic was a constitutive element of                 literary composition, a recurring theme or phrase that organized the development of an argument in a      literary text. For the study of Chinese literature, we typically use the term “topic”and "subtopic”   (the latter term following Stephen Owen in his Traditional Chinese Poetry and Poetics) as ways of        organizing literary texts within a given genre (usually poetry, but also fiction) through thematic       categories. This is a practice that mirrors both the practices of leishu and modern anthological         organization. From the perspective of literary information management, one might begin by considering    the origins of these practices, the reasons for adopting thematic rubrics to group together texts within a family tree.                                                                                           

    The notion of “topic” in topic modeling is not unrelated to its usage in literary theory. How the topic model works, on a basic level, is to examine the documents a particular corpus by means of a set   of probabilistic algorithms that returns the hypothetical “topics” that would have generated the       documents. These topics are a kind of analytical fiction, since the documents were never constructed by  such means, but they provide valuable insight into latent textual structures—not unlike the more        intentional structures of Aristotelian topoi. To read literature through algorithmic means is, however,  to change the concept of what it means to read, given that the “output” of the topic modeling          algorithm is not an interpretation. What this paper will explore is the possibilities and the      limits of a topic-based approached to literary studies.